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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Sexi using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Sexk In Sign Up. Baker, H. Heather D Baker.

Baker patterns radically, but such modifications may Introduction be under-represented in danestanihaye accounts, The aim of this paper is to use the written especiallythose of earlier excavations. Fourth, documentation from first-millennium BC living densities, and especially variations in Babylonia, in combination with other data, to them, may shed light on differences in social develop a framework within which we can bet- status;they also, of course, have implications ter understand the archaeological evidence for demographic studies.

Finally, while my for modifications to domestic dwellings. This focus is on first-millennium BC Babylonia, issueis of interest for a number ofreasons. First, some of the considerations raised here may it has a direct bearing on our understanding have implications for the interpretation of of the organization of the household, and of excavated houses from other periods and how people lived.

Second, and related to the areas. In particular, we in a recent, comprehensive study by Miglus, haveto considerwhether any specialistactivity to which the reader is referred for further areasare replicated among the different units details Essentiallyhe divided or whether they are retained in communal use the houses into single-courtyard houses and once a house is divided rp.

Third, there have multipartite ones, the latter group includ- been a number of interesting recent studiesof ing double houses and houses of more com- Mesopotamian domestic architecture which plex layout. Although Miglus was primarily have focused on "permeability", that is, on concerned with houses from the first half of patterns of circulation within the house e. This con- In spite of the wealth of documentary tinuity, combined with the frequent absence evidence for the Neo-Babylonian household of precise dating criteria, means that it is not and family, there is as yet danestanihaye synthesis avail- possiblefor us to subdivide the period for the able comparable to Postgate's excellent over- purposes of the present study.

Houses are not only attested through Swxi, many detailed, specialist studies excavationbut also seexi a wealth of cune- on aspectsof family matters have been sexi iform economic documents from first-millen- lished in recent years see especiallyWunsch nium nc Babylonia. Patterns of residence will be dealt to compare the excavated houses with those with in further detail in Baker forthcoming. First it is same author Danestanihaye forthcomirg. The prin- necessary to review the definitions of the cipal characteristics of the documentation terms that are central to any discussionof res- relevant for the present purposes will be con- idence patterns, following the work of Laslett sidered in further detail below.

A "Simple The basic starting point for examining the Family Household" consists of a "Conjugal relationship between Mesopotamian houses Family Unit" married couple or widowed per- and their inhabitants has to be the seminal son with offspringwith or without slaves.

An work of Stone on this subjectFinally, a "Multiple Family areaand the alterations made to it, with the Household" includes two or more conjugal changes in its ownership as documented by family units which are connected by kinship tablets actually found in the house. However, or marriage. We ing to it, so we have to operate on a somewhat might expect that normally such a transfor- more abstractlevel.

Nevertheless,using Stone's mation would be triggered by one or more sig- study as a point of departure, and taking into nificant life events, such as the death of the account the abundant written evidence for head of the household, or the marriage of a the family and the household, it is possibleto son.

According to Schloen drawing on the make some progress in addressingthis issue. The scenario can be the nuclear family stage at any one time, that summarized as follows: upon the death of is, two-thirds would have been of the Simple their father, four brothers divided up House I Family Household type Schloen Within a relatively short period of also, because there too the date review death of the time a series of adjustments were made, with parents would tend to keep the numbers of the end result that the danestanihaje son, Enlil- joint family households rather low.

This is galzu, was left owning part of the original borne out by a recent study of Neo-Babylonian house, and the remainder of it came into the demography by Gehlken, who found that possessionof one of two brothers who owned around half of the male temple personnel in the house next door House Danesttanihaye.

During this his sample worked together with their father process a number of physical alterations were for up to five years, and thus the opportunities made to the original house: for both father and adult male sons to live in the same household were restricted Gehlken 1 A new entrance from the street was cre- In reality, entrance in danestanihaye since that danestanihaye was of course, anomalous situations abounded, now owned by an unrelated individual, hence the stress placed in more recent stud- Ipqu-Enlil.

It has to be borne in mind whose own part of the house already had that there is an inherent bias in our documen- danestanihay entrance locussee above. Such is 4 The doorway between locus b and the the casewith the Neo-Babylonian tablets deal- central courtyard, locus b, was now ing with the rights of widows, which have been blocked up see Fig. After Stone Fig. Since three of the four heirs 7 The wall between locus and locus quickly relinquished their sharesin HouseI, was demolished see Fig.

The seix "square"house ing the principles of modification, which will that the brothers inherited togetherhad been be useful to us in reviewing the first-millen- transformed into a "linear" houseownedby a nium evidence.

In particular, when what was singlebrother. According the parts of the house to the example of TA House I, this could be Before examining the textual evidencefor the done by a combination of measures,espe- division and sharing of dwellingsin the first cially: 1 making a separate entrance where millennium Bc, we must first reviewin brief necessary and blocking up a redundant sec- the Akkadian terminology for the partsof the ond entrance ;2 blocking up anydoorswhich house,sinceour understandingof theseterms communicatedbetweenunits which were now provides essentialinformation as to how the separate;and 3 where a central courtyardwas layout and orgamzation of the housewascon- enclosedby suites of rooms owned by differ- ceptualized by its occupants.

The question ent, unrelated parties, then it wasreservedfor of house layout and of relating the Akkadian soleuse by one of the parties in this casethe terminology to the excavatedground plansis new owner on the south-westside had access one that danestqnihaye be treated in detail by the author to a different sexi through the adjacent Baker forthcomirg. Essentially,there is a rooms owned by his brother. The question of room use by extended families. According to her, danestaniyaye is thereforeessentiallyan archaeologicalprob- nuclearfamily had danestwnihaye main living room with lem and, for our period, the identificationof l-2 subsidiary rooms plus courtyard space.

Modern central courtyard of the house,but they chose techniques,such as the micromorphological not to do so. The husband, in anticipa- absence of functionally specific terminology tion of his death, might danestanihayee to his wife a concerning the house reflects conventions of house or part of a house, either unusually record keeping: individual bathrooms aexi bed- as an outright gift with full title, or as a life- rooms were unlikely to be sold on their own, time interest, that is, where the widow had no and when they formed part of a larger complex right to dispose of the property in question, there was no reason to refer to them by name which reverted to the husband's heirs upon Baker The terms for parts of the her death.

Alternatively, the widow might have house which occur most frequently in the doc- recourse to her own dowry property: either uments are those for the courtyard tarbasu she sexk live in the house assigned to her as and the individual "wings" which enclosed it part of this dowry,Tor she could rent a dwell- and which were designated according to the ing by drawing on the income from her dowry. Again, when a "testament" that his two sons would live in the house is treated as a whole, there is rarely any house with her for as long as she lived Baker need to refer to its constituent parts by name.

The danestanhiaye suggest that the Before we address the question of shared own- man sexi currently living in a household made ership and use of houses,we should first briefly up of himself, his widowed mother, his two consider issues of residence in general.

As sons who were probably unmarried and had mentioned above, residence at this period was not yet formed their own householdsand his virilocal, with the husband normally establish- two unmarried sisters-although explicit evi- ing his own household upon marriage. There dence for co-residence. However, indicates that she had already died; it is likely one should be extremely wary of drawing from that the man's mother played a part in caring this single case any conclusions about the seg- for her motherless grandsons.

In any case this regation of sexi. The sale danestanihaye parts of houses leasedocuments are also lacking and it is well which are clearly identifiable as such is almost established that certain kinds of legal con- entirely restricted to the Hellenistic period. The sale of small that refer in passing to houses being shared "houses" is well attested in earlier centuries between different dnaestanihaye.

Baker 62and at least some of these We have to extract from the written evi- must represent parts of traditional court- dence the range of possible scenariosfor the yard houses rather than complete houses in shared ownership and use of houses in order their own right.

It seems likely therefore that to provide the context for examining the the difference is one of phrasing: before the archaeological evidence. There are a number Hellenistic period the properties which are of points that should be borne in mind. First, the subject of sale contracts tended to sezi as we observed above, evidence of danestanihaye called by the generic term bttu rather than by is not the same as evidence of residence.

The one or more of the terms which explicitly refer renting of houses or parts of houses was very to a house sector e. In the case of the division of inheritance, To give one example, a marriage contract from we have to distinguish between those docu- Borsippa written in Bc records a dowry ments that concern the apportioning of com- that included a part of a house measuring plete, adjacent houses between the heirs, and approximately 61 danestanijaye, given by a mother to her those which deal with the splitting up of sin- daughter Kruckmann no.

Casesbelonging to the former Danestanihahe in BC. I0According to the tablet category are interesting for the study of pat- the two women were obliged not to obstruct terns of residence within neighbourhoods one another's access. However, we know from but are outside the scope of the present work. For example, in the initial stagesof the history The leasing of parts of houses is attested of TA House I at Nippur, while the house was in a handful of documents from the sixth still entirely owned by the brothers, there were century sc.

In contrast to the sale and inher- no evident internal alterations made to it see itance documents, such lease contracts are Fig. It was only after part of it had entirely absent from the Hellenistic corpus. This is the case, for up a house is likely to have varied danestanihaye social example,with a number of salesof substantial status and wealth. In fact it is not always clear, but splitting up a house need not have arisen. For there may be some clues, for example when a example, in the case of a well-known tablet, specific part of a house, e.

The oldest son, Marduk- above, we can put forward four possible sce- nasir-apli, received seven houses in Babylon narios for residence within a traditional and three in Borsippa, while his two younger Babylonian courtyard house.

Three of these brothers took four houses in Babylon and two involve relatives living together, either as l in Borsippaastheirjoint share. In another case a Simple Family Household; 2 an Extended of inheritance division the oldest son received Family Danestanihaye or 3 a Multiple Family sevenslaves,a main house bltu rabA ,another Household. In the fourth case seix have to house, and a field, while his younger brother consider the possibility of courtyard houses took three sxi plot of unbuilt land, and being shared by different family households some arable land as his share Weisberg that were not related to one another.

As we no. This theory-that physical modifica- would tend to be remodelled in order to form tions to houses may be correlated with social separate units. However, we cannot exclude status-is one that we should be able to test the possibility that courtyards were sometimes against the sexi record, by deter- shared between unrelated family units, espe- mining whether the more humble dwellings cially since we have textual evidencefrom sexi more often betray more traces of internal first millennium for the renting of parts of modification zexi grander ones.

In our texts the term bttuoften refers only According to the written sources, when to part of sexi house, and not to a whole house different parties whether related or not of the traditional plan.

The owners or occupiers referred ing of House III next door prevented the use to in danestanihayee documents are almost always men. Second, We have to assume that these were typically modifications could be made which changed adult male heads of their own households, the internal circulation pattern more radi- but we are not given any details about the size cally from the inside, by the blocking up of and composition of their own families.

References to more than danestanihaye such the occupants;t3in this case the perimeters of parties sharing a house are rare.

The earlier stages One document written in Uruk in in the transformation of TA House I at Nippur sc describes the division of a house between represent an example of this situation Stone a man's three grandsons and his son, their figs 2A-3A; see Figs Third, uncle Dougherty no. As I understand the actually changed the perimeter of the house, text, the house is of the double courtyard thereby either expanding or reducing the area typ. Expansion may have been divided between the oldest grandson and his accomplished either by incorporating part of youngest brother.

The so-called "outer court" a neighbouring property danestanihays the house or by tarbasu babani,which is a little smaller in building on adjacent unbuilt land.

For exam- area, danestanihaey divided between xanestanihaye middle danestanihayw ple, TA House H was expanded at the expense and his uncle, each of whom is to have two of House I by the acquisition and incorpo- of the four suites of rooms surrounding the ration of several loci see above. Conversely, courtyard. In the case of the main house the TA House I itself was diminished in area by respective shares of the two brothers are not this process.

Alternatively, a reduction in area specified. I suggest that this is danestanihaye the may result from the partial abandonment sexi youngest brother was not yet adult and thus a house. This is said to have been the case, there was no question of his establishing his for example, with Building B, Level I, in the own household.

WC-2 area at Nippur Armstrong 38,fig. The archaeological evidence sc. Note in this connection that we also have occasional textual references to a part for house modification of a house plot being derelict or unbuilt. For It is possible to propose a number of poten- example, one tablet from Uruk written in tial scenarios for alterations to a danestanihaaye plan, nc which refers sexi "a built north -facing reflecting different circumstances.

First, wing and south -facing wing and the remain- the main entrance could be relocated as a der of the house, which is to be torn down and response to physical changes in the immedi- rebuilt" Dougherty danesfanihaye. The quality of fixed in place, and the north -facing wing the excavationsand final publication suggests which is unbuilt" Keiser sexi.

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