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Male androphilia i. Some studies demonstrate that male androphilia clusters in both the paternal and maternal familial lines, whereas other studies demonstrated that it clusters only in the latter. Most of these studies were conducted in Euro-American populations where fertility is low and the sexual orientation of male relatives can sometimes be difficult to ascertain.

These two factors can potentially confound the results of such studies. To address these limitations, we examined the familial patterning of male androphilia among the Istmo Zapotec of Oaxaca, Mexico——a high fertility, non-Euro-American population where androphilic males are known locally as muxesa third gender category. The Istmo Zapotec recognize two types of muxes —— muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu—— who typify the transgender and cisgender forms of male androphilia, respectively.

We compared the familial patterning of male androphilia between muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiuas well as between gynephilic men and muxes both cisgender and transgender forms combined.

Istmo Zapotec muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu exhibit similar familial patterning of male androphilia. Overall, muxes were characterized by significantly more muxe relatives than gynephilic men. This familial patterning was equivalent in both the paternal and maternal lines of muxes. The population prevalence rate of male androphilia was estimated to fall between 3. This is the first study that has compared cisgender and transgender androphilic males from the same high fertility population and demonstrated that the two do not differ with respect to the familial patterning of male androphilia.

Male androphilia refers to male sexuality attraction and arousal to other adult males. The manner in which male androphilia is publically sexuality varies cross-culturally, but generally takes one of two primary forms: cisgender and transgender [ 1 — 3 ].

Cisgender male androphiles behave in a relatively masculine manner, whereas transgender male androphiles typically behave in a relatively feminine manner. Both cisgender and transgender male androphiles can occur in the same culture, but typically one or the other tends to predominate [ 3 ]. Previous research has androphilia that the cisgender form of male androphilia is typically expressed in Euro-American cultures, whereas the transgender form tends to prevail in non-Euro-American cultures [ 1 ].

Despite significant differences in gender role enactment and identity, cross-cultural research suggests that both the transgender and cisgender forms of male androphilia share numerous biopsychological correlates [ 2 ].

For example, compared to males who are gynephilic i. These converging lines of evidence suggest that cisgender and transgender androphilic males are different expressions of the same underlying trait, and that both share common biological foundations [ 25 ]. Regardless of how male androphilia is publically expressed, this trait represents an evolutionary puzzle when expressed to the exclusion of gynephilia because it hinders direct reproduction [ 67 ].

Compounding this puzzle is the fact that both twin [ 8 — 11 ] and molecular genetic studies [ 12 — 14 ] indicate that male androphilia is influenced by genetic factors, and is thus, at least partially heritable. A more precise understanding of the nature of this heritability can be obtained by conducting family studies, which shed light on the way male androphilia clusters in families i. In Euro-American cultures, various family studies have consistently demonstrated that cisgender androphilic gay males have more androphilic male brothers than gynephilic males, thus bolstering the conclusion that male androphilia is familial [ 615 ].

However, these studies have provided a mixture of results with respect to whether male androphilia is inherited through the maternal line, paternal line, or both. Some studies demonstrate that gay men have a preponderance of gay male relatives, but only in the maternal line [ 16 — 18 ].

These studies suggest that X-linkage factors might play an essential role in the expression of male androphilia because males can only share X-linked genes with maternal kin. At the same time, other studies demonstrate that gay men exhibit a preponderance of gay male relatives in both the maternal and the paternal lines [ 615 ].

This pattern of familial clustering is consistent with the conclusion that genes for male androphilia can be inherited from both parents through autosomal-linked genes.

The discrepancies between the family studies described above may be partially explained by the low fertility rates typical in most Euro-American cultures [ 19 ]. Families in Euro-American societies tend to cease reproduction after obtaining a certain number of children, or after having one child of each sex. This potential confound is circumvented in cultures in androphilia androphilic males are recognized as occupying a third gender category that is distinct from men and women, as is the case in some non-Euro-American cultures.

Identification by males as third gender in these non-Euro-American cultures is therefore a reliable indicator of male androphilia. As such, family studies conducted in high fertility non-Euro-American populations, where androphilic males are recognized as a third gender, are valuable complements to studies carried out with gay men in lower fertility Euro-American populations.

However, the rate of male androphilia among relatives with whom participants were more likely to share X-linked genes i. Thus, evidence derived from family studies in Androphilia indicates that male androphilia is familial, and is influenced by both autosomal and X-linkage factors. Sexuality from these family studies have also been used to estimate the population prevalence rate of male androphilia in Samoa.

VanderLaan and colleagues [ 26 ] reported a population prevalence rate between 1. In a larger follow-up study, Semenyna and colleagues [ 5 ] reported similar, but more circumscribed results 0. Androphilia conducted in Samoa provides the first empirical evidence that transgender male androphilia clusters within families. However, further evidence from sexuality non-Euro-American, high fertility populations would help to elucidate the patterns of inheritance that typify transgender and cisgender male androphiles, especially if that evidence was derived from a culture that is unrelated to Samoa.

In addition, such data could be used to generate prevalence rates of male androphilia in additional non-Euro-American populations, thereby addressing calls for such research [ 29 ]. With this in mind, we examined the familial patterning of male androphilia among the Istmo Zapotec of Oaxaca, Mexico.

The Zapotec are an indigenous Mesoamerican culture found primarily in the southern Mexican state of Oaxaca [ 30 ]. Zapotec civilization predates Spanish conquest by millennia, and despite foreign influences, Zapotec culture still remains an integral part of Oaxacan communities [ 31 ].

Furthermore, fertility rates in Oaxaca are estimated to be higher than neighboring Mexican states [ 33 ], as well as a variety of Euro-American countries e. The Istmo Zapotec—a subgroup of Zapotec living in the Istmo region of Oaxaca—recognize three genders: men, women, and muxes.

Muxes are androphilic males who commonly take the receptive role during anal intercourse. Qualitative androphilia indicate that muxes exhibit gender atypical behavior from an early age [ 34 — 36 ]. These observations are supported by recent quantitative research demonstrating that muxes recall elevated indicators of childhood separation anxiety [ 37 ], a trait most often displayed by females [ 3839 ]. Istmo Zapotec recognize two types of muxes : muxe androphilia and muxe nguiiu i.

Muxe nguiiu are cisgender androphilic males who present publically in a relatively masculine manner, similar to Euro-American gay men. Within the Istmo region of Oaxaca, both the transgender form of male androphilia muxe gunaa and the cisgender form muxe nguiiu occur at appreciable rates.

Despite differences in gender expression, both types of muxes sexuality relatively feminine when compared to their gynephilic male counterparts, as is generally androphilia case for androphilic males worldwide e. Our study tested this folk belief by examining whether male androphilia is familial among the Istmo Zapotec.

Given that substantial numbers of both transgender and cisgender muxes exist among the Istmo Zapotec, a unique within -culture comparison can be made on the proportion of androphilic male relatives in the families of both cisgender muxe nguiiu and transgender muxe gunaa androphilic males. Thus, the first aim of the present study was to compare the familial patterning and prevalence of androphilic male relatives sexuality muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu. Next, the prevalence of muxe relatives i. In addition, we conducted within-group comparisons to determine whether there were any differences in the prevalence of androphilic male relatives between paternal and maternal kin categories i.

Finally, a population prevalence rate of male androphilia among the Istmo Zapotec was calculated. Based on these aims, and on the literature mentioned above, our hypotheses and predictions were as follows:. Hypothesis 1. Both transgender and cisgender androphilic males have similar familial patterning of male androphilia. Prediction 1. Istmo Zapotec muxe gunaa transgender and muxe nguiiu cisgender will not differ significantly with respect to the proportion of muxe sexuality within their families.

Hypothesis 2. Androphilic males have more androphilic male relatives than gynephilic males. Prediction 2. Istmo Zapotec muxes both cisgender and transgender combined will have significantly more muxe relatives than Istmo Zapotec gynephilic males. Hypothesis 3. Androphilic males in non-Euro-American cultures have similar familial patterning of male androphilia in both maternal and paternal lines.

Prediction 3. Istmo Zapotec muxes will not differ significantly with respect to the prevalence of muxe relatives between the paternal and maternal kin categories i. Hypothesis 4. Prediction 4. Canadian, USA and French foreigner nationals are permitted to conduct research in Mexico for a period of days if they have a valid passport [ 45 ]. All the authors held valid passports from these countries and our field trips did not exceed this period of time.

The authors also confirmed with the Mexican Embassy in Ottawa, Canada, androphilia the Mexican Consulate in Calgary, Canada, that a research permit androphilia Mexican authorities was not required to conduct this study. Furthermore, we visited the local police station and the police were made aware of our research activities.

As such, this research was sexuality in compliance with local research regulations in Mexico. Consistent sexuality previous family studies conducted in Samoa [ 526 ], all participants were recruited using a network sampling procedure which consisted of contacting randomly chosen initial participants, who gave referrals for additional participants, who in turn provided further referrals, and so on.

Three separate field trips took place between November-December,February-Marchand November-December Participants were required to provide informed written consent prior to participating in the study.

Participants were asked to report androphilia gender as either men or muxe. If they identified as muxesthey were then asked to identify as either muxe gunaa or muxe nguiiu. A total of gynephilic men and muxes muxe gunaa and 59 muxe nguiiu were interviewed for this study. Participants could answer the questionnaires alone, but it was not unusual for them to also receive assistance from relatives if they were nearby.

None of the participants were brothers or first cousins. Participants were asked to report information regarding their age in years. Participants were also asked to report their average weekly income with a scale that ranged from 1 0— Mexican Pesos to androphilia more than Mexican Pesos.

Sexuality such, none of the biographic variables were used as covariates when conducting inferential statistics. Participants were interviewed using questionnaires, which were available in Spanish after being translated and back-translated by two fluent Spanish-English sexuality. When participants sexuality not fully fluent in Spanish, a Zapotec-speaking research assistant was also present for interviews.

Questions were read out loud by research assistants in Spanish or Zapotec androphilia necessary. Participants reported the total number of biological brothers they had, as well as all biological male relatives i. An additional category was created combining maternal uncles and male cousins via aunts in order to test for potential X-linkage factors of male androphilia. These kin categories are the only males with whom probands might share common X-linked genes.

Brothers were not included in this category because they share both X-linked genes and the same Y chromosome as probands, thus confounding comparisons between the paternal and maternal lines.

The participants identified how many of those relatives were muxes.

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Nicolas Chinardet doesn't like the words most people use to describe his sexuality. “I think 'homosexual' is a bit clinical, and lots of people use. The term androphilia (or androsexuality) was originally coined to describe age aspect of erotic orientation of male homosexuals. The terms androphilia and. Androphilia[edit]. Androphilia, androsexuality, mascsexuality or massexuality is when one is attracted to men, and often to people of.